The microbiology of the gut refers to the detailed study of the variant microbiomes in the gut or gastrointestinal tracts of the mammalian anatomy. It encompasses the study of the relationship between the variant microbes and the host, the negative and positive effects of the microbes, and also the ways of the functionality of microbes in the gut.
Microbes are basically microorganisms, essentially bacteria, which are unicellular, that carry out metabolic activities and can cause diseases. They are also the cause of fermentation.
The gut is also called the gastrointestinal tract. It includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, pancreas, liver, gall bladder, colon rectum, and anus. It is the part of the mammalian body that processes food and food digestion. It is also important for diet and food nutrition. The microbes present in the gut have an impact on human health . In a typical adult gut, there are about 100trillion microbes present . The microbes in the gut can either be beneficial or harmful. The kind of food intake, whether raw or cooked or even the variant of cooked or raw food, can shape the microbes in the gut. Also, Cooked food can cause a change in gut microbes . This is because of the chemical structure of the food. Microbiomes have metabolic activities that can either be beneficial or harmful to the host. Stress can affect the ways of the variant microbiomes are formed .
The positive impact of the microbes in the gut on the body
On the positive side, the microbes in the gut give energy to the host, contribute to the nutrient and also ensure the balance of food metabolism and the immune system through their fermentation process . Also, their presence contributes to the healthiness of the large intestine. Some microbiota like bifidobacterial and faecalibacterium prausnitzii also carry beneficial effects when present in the gastrointestinal tract . They help the gut in its metabolic activities.
Negative effects of microbes in the gut on the body
Most microbes, generally, are of harmful effects. Some microbes can cause inflammation in any part of the gastrointestinal tract which is very harmful . Also, some of the microbes can cause infection. They can also cause gastrointestinal diseases, diabetes and obesity inflammation, and cancer via systemic metabolic reprogramming . Changes in the gut microbiomes can be most harmful. For example, changes in the gut microbiota as a result of excessive alcohol intake can cause liver metabolic diseases . Another example is how the gut microbes can have a change in composition as a result of metabolizing fatty acids which is meant for digestion and ultimately lead to an imbalance in metabolic activities and cause metabolic disorders and cancer .
Microbacta present in the gut
There are hundreds of varied bacteria present in the gut. In a typical adult gastrointestinal tract, there are about five hundred species of bacteria of different compositions, colonizing different parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Numerous microbes reside in the colon and they have an effect on the fermentation of amylolytic gut bacteria. There are two major bacteria phyla that composed the human microbiome, they include: bacteriodetes and firmicutes. Proteobacteria, actinobacteria, fusobacteria, archaea and vernicomicrobia phyla are all present in the gastrointestinal tract however, not as much as the two major bacteria phyla. Some bacteria have health-beneficial effects on the colonized host and they include: Firmicutes, bacteriodetes, actinobacteria and vermicomicrobia. The gut microbiota can be have impacts on mood, cognition processes, pain reception and response, and obesity because of the gut relationship with the brain .
In conclusion, gut microbes are of different kinds and have varying impacts on the mammalian body. There are so many of them present and they reflect the kind of lifestyle, and dietary intake of the host judging from the fact that their impact is a result of the activities of the host. The gut microbes have positive effects on the body, however small. Recent research on the microbiology of the gut, especially on the gut microbiota’s relationship to the brain has shown that the microbes in the gut are responsible for the host’s responsiveness to pain, and are key to the relationship between the gut and the brain. These all show the relevance of the study of gut microbiota.
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